Border: France-Italy-Monaco

Date(s) of establishment: 1860 (Treaty Turin) - 1947
Length of border: 515 km
Regions concerned: France: Regions – Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
Departments – Alpes-Maritimes, Alpes de Haute-Provence, Hautes-Alpes, Savoie, Haute-Savoie
Italy: Regions – Liguria, Piemonte, Valle d'Aosta
Principality of Monaco

European programme(s):




The line of the border between France and Italy has been modified more recently than that of any other French border: in 1860 with the incorporation of Savoy and the County of Nice into France, then in 1947 with the incorporation of the canton of Tende. This long border, extending from Mont-Blanc to Menton on the Mediterranean coast, is very difficult to cross due to its exclusively mountainous relief. There are few valleys providing through routes across the border, and the transport of passengers and goods goes mainly through tunnels.

Linguistic penetration either side of this border is low, except in the Aosta Valley, which is traditionally French-speaking, and the Occitan dialect spoken in the border areas of Piedmont. The rural character of these areas and the absence of major population centres close to the border, the main sources of cross-border flows, contribute to limiting exchanges. The heterogeneity of the territories and of the issues hinders the implementation of a cross-border cooperation strategy at the level of the border.

However, the use of Territorial Integrated Plans (PIT) and Thematic Integrated Plans within the framework of the European programmes and the implementation of sector-based cooperation show the determination on both sides of the border to support cross-border cooperation and integrate its development within the policies of regional authorities. The projects on the French-Italian border are funded by two European programmes: the Interreg VA programmes Alcotra and Italy-France (Maritime).

Territory projects and institutional bodies for cooperation

Institutional cooperation at the state level

Quirinal Treaty - Franco-Italian Cross-Border Cooperation Committee

Cross-border cooperation at the local level

Franco-Italo-Monegasque Riviera
Conference of the High Valleys

Cooperation between protected natural areas

Mercantour National Park and Parco naturale Alpi Marittime
The Vanoise National Park and Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso
Mount Viso cross-border biosphere reserve
Mont-Blanc area
The Bonifacio Strait International Marine Park