Urban planning, land and housing
Urban planning in a cross-border area necessarily involves a confrontation between different systems of land management (planning, zoning, construction and work authorisations) on either side of the border. Each State has developed its own urban planning law and practices, which leave room for manoeuvre, to a lesser or greater degree, for local and regional authorities to organise the development of their territories. In addition, most of the players engaged in cross-border cooperation do not have detailed knowledge of the different modes of institutional and administrative organisation at work in the territories of their neighbours on the other side of the border. Furthermore, regulatory competences, including those over urban planning regulation, remain confined to each national border grouping, which significantly constrains cross-border cooperation.