Education, training and languages
Vocational training, internships and apprenticeships
While vocational training is dependent on the policies within cross-border living spaces and labour market catchment areas (see the topic "Employment"), its programming is primarily national, hindering the transmission of knowledge and know-how.
Each adult employee or jobseeker beginning continuous vocational training remains covered by his or her national system, which confers status, benefits and recognition of qualifications and skills.
The creation of a special “cross-border trainee” status could be considered for adults in cross-border continuing vocational training.
Similarly, any differences in the status of apprentices on either side of the border hinder the development of a cross-border labour market based on complementary exchanges, despite the willingness of employers, particularly in relation to admission conditions and social security coverage.
In addition to European harmonisation systems, bilateral agreements or conventions are therefore required at different levels, but mainly between organizations and training authorities.
As far as the content of training courses and curriculum are concerned, cooperation working towards the alignment of training pathways and the modularisation of the cross-border training offering can develop, involving socio-economic actors in the area.
For dual education (sandwich courses, etc.), apprenticeships and internships several experimental schemes are being developed, nevertheless without reaching the goal of pathways leading to dual qualifications. In general; the diploma is obtained in one country, and the vocational training element is undertaken wholly or partly in the other country.