Border: France-Italy-Monaco

Date(s) of establishment: 1860 (Treaty Turin) - 1947
Length of border: 515 km
Regions concerned: France: Regions – Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, Rhône-Alpes
Departments – Alpes-Maritimes, Alpes de Haute-Provence, Hautes-Alpes, Savoie, Haute-Savoie
Italy: Regions – Liguria, Piemonte, Valle d'Aosta
Principality of Monaco

European programme(s):




The line of the border between France and Italy has been modified more recently than that of any other French border: in 1860 with the incorporation of Savoy and the County of Nice into France, then in 1947 with the incorporation of the canton of Tende. This long border, extending from Mont-Blanc to Menton on the Mediterranean coast, is very difficult to cross due to its exclusively mountainous relief. There are few valleys providing through routes across the border, and the transport of passengers and goods goes mainly through tunnels.

Linguistic penetration either side of this border is low, except in the Aosta Valley, which is traditionally French-speaking, and the Occitan dialect spoken in the border areas of Piedmont. The rural character of these areas and the absence of major population centres, the main sources of cross-border flows, contribute to limiting exchanges. The heterogeneity of the territories and of the issues prevents the implementation of a cross-border cooperation strategy at the level of the border.

However, the formation of a Euroregion in 2008, the use of integrated cross-border plans (PIT) within the framework of European programmes and the implementation of sector-based cooperation show the determination on both sides of the border to support cross-border cooperation and integrate its development into regional policies. The projects on the French-Italian border are funded by two Interreg IVA European programmes: Alcotra and Italy-France Maritime.

Territory projects and institutional bodies for cooperation

Cross-border cooperation at the regional level

Euroregion Alpes-Méditerranée

Cross-border cooperation at the local level

Franco-Italo-Monegasque Riviera
Conférence des Hautes Vallées

Cooperation between protected natural areas

Parc national du Mercantour and Parco naturale Alpi Marittime
Parc national de la Vanoise and Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso
Réserve de biosphère transfrontalière du Mont Viso
Espace Mont-Blanc
Bouches de Bonifacio international marine park